Do We All See the Same Color?

    Have You Ever Wondered Why You See Colors, or Really Anything?                      

Colors of the rainbow.
 Well, you can thank light for seeing anything, for without light, or photo receptors, we wouldn't see anything. Light contains "little bits" called photons. These "little bits" fall on Earth when the sun shines, and they bounce off everything. The white light given off from the sun actually holds all the colors of the rainbow.  

Photo receptors come in two main types, rods and cones. They are located in the retina, the layer in the back of eye. The retina also accommodates nerves that inform the brain what the photo receptors are "observing". While rods help us see in the dark, ( only in black and white) cones are what let us see color, red,green and blue, one cone for each main color. Cones only work in bright light because they aren't as sensitive as rods.

The reason we see different colors likes purple or orange is because there are different variations of the main ones. When light hits an object, lets say an apple, the apple absorbs a lot of the light. The purples and greens get absorbed, in this case, the light that gets reflected is red light. An object's color is based on the color of light it reflects. The color of light also depends on the the wavelength of light.  For example, the color purple is 400 nanometers, while red is 700 nanometers. Colors like red are at the beginning of the spectrum, while colors like violet are at the end.

Our eyes are sensitive to some wavelengths of light, from small waves (gamma rays) to larger ones (radio waves). Many insects can see ultraviolet light, though. We know this because scientists that study the eyes of animals observe their cones and this informs what color they see.

The molecule that actually absorbs the light is the rhodopsin. The rhodopsin regenerates with vitamin A. Since carrots contain a plethora of vitamin A, it is said to be "good for your eyes", though it can't cure color deficiency, also known as color blindness. Color deficiency is more common in men than women, though it is fairly common for a woman to have it.